Nov 21

How to backup and restore the embedded vCenter Server 6.0 vPostgres database

Posted on October 18, 2016 by Ramesh B S

This video demonstrates how to backup and restore an embedded vCenter Server 6.0 vPostgres database. Backing up your database protects the data stored in your database. Of course, restoring a backup is an essential part of that function.

This follows up on our recent blog & video: How to backup and restore the embedded vCenter Server Appliance 6.0 vPostgres database.

Note: This video is only supported for backup and restore of the vPostgres database to the same vCenter Server. Use of image-based backup and restore is the only solution supported for performing a full, secondary appliance restore.

Rating: 5/5


Jun 14

VMware vCenter Server 6.0 Performance and Best Practices

Introduction

VMware vCenter Server™ 6.0 substantially improves performance over previous vCenter Server versions. This paper demonstrates the improved performance in vCenter Server 6.0 compared to vCenter Server 5.5, and shows that vCenter Server with the embedded vPostgres database now performs as well as vCenter Server with an external database, even at vCenter Server’s scale limits. This paper also discusses factors that affect vCenter Server performance and provides best practices for vCenter Server performance.

What’s New in vCenter Server 6.0

vCenter Server 6.0 brings extensive improvements in performance and scalability over vCenter Server 5.5:

  • Operational throughput is over 100% higher, and certain operations are over 80% faster.
  • VMware vCenter Server™ Appliance™ now has the same scale limits as vCenter Server on Windows with an external database: 1,000 ESXi hosts, 10,000 powered-on virtual machines, and 15,000 registered virtual machines.
  • VMware vSphere® Web Client performance has improved, with certain pages over 90% faster.

In addition, vCenter Server 6.0 provides new deployment options:

  • Both vCenter Server on Windows and VMware vCenter Server Appliance provide an embedded vPostgres database as an alternative to an external database. (vPostgres replaces the SQL Server Express option that was available in previous vCenter versions.)
  • The embedded vPostgres database supports vCenter’s full scale limits when used with the vCenter Server Appliance.

Performance Comparison with vCenter Server 5.5

In order to demonstrate and quantify performance improvements in vCenter Server 6.0, this section compares 6.0 and 5.5 performance at several inventory and workload sizes. In addition, this section compares vCenter Server 6.0 on Windows to the vCenter Server Appliance at different inventory sizes, to highlight the larger scale limits in the Appliance in vCenter 6.0. Finally, this section illustrates the performance gained by provisioning vCenter with additional resources.

The workload for this comparison uses vSphere Web Services API clients to simulate a self-service cloud environment with a large amount of virtual machine “churn” (that is, frequently creating, deleting, and reconfiguring virtual machines). Each client repeatedly issues a series of inventory management and provisioning operations to vCenter Server. Table 1 lists the operations performed in this workload. The operations listed here were chosen from a sampling of representative customer data. Also, the inventories in this experiment used vCenter features including DRS, High Availability, and vSphere Distributed Switch. (See Appendix A for precise details on inventory configuration.)

Operations performed in performance comparison workload

Results

Figure 3 shows vCenter Server operation throughput (in operations per minute) for the heaviest workload for each inventory size. Performance has improved considerably at all sizes. For example, for the large inventory setup (Figure 3, right), operational throughput has increased from just over 600 operations per minute in vCenter Server 5.5 to over 1,200 operations per minute in vCenter Server 6.0 for Windows: an improvement of over 100%.
The other inventory sizes show similar gains in operational throughput.

vCenter Server 6.0 operation throughput

Figure 3. vCenter throughput at several inventory sizes, with heavy workload (higher is better). Throughput has increased at all inventory sizes in vCenter Server 6.0.

Figure 4 shows median latency across all operations in the heaviest workload for each inventory size. Just as with operational throughput in Figure 3, latency has improved at all inventory sizes. For example, for the large inventory setup (Figure 4, right), median operational latency has decreased from 19.4 seconds in vCenter Server 5.5 to 4.0 seconds in vCenter Server Appliance 6.0: a decrease of about 80%. The other inventory sizes also show large decreases in operational latency.

vCenter Server median latency at several inventory sizes

Figure 4. vCenter Server median latency at several inventory sizes, with heavy workload (lower is better). Latency has decreased at all inventory sizes in vCenter 6.0.

Download

Download a full VMware vCenter Server 6.0 Performance and Best Practices Technical White Paper

Rating: 5/5


Jun 13

Deploying a Centralized VMware vCenter™ Single Sign-On™ Server with a Network Load Balancer

Overview

With the release of VMware vSphere® 5.5 and VMware® vCenter Server™ 5.5, multiple components deliver the vCenter Server management solution. One component, VMware vCenter™ Single Sign-On™ server, offers an optional deployment configuration that enables the centralization of vCenter Single Sign-On services for multiple local solutions such as vCenter Server. If not architected correctly, centralization can increase risk, so use of vCenter Single Sign-On server is highly recommended.

This paper highlights the high-availability options for a centralized vCenter Single Sign-On environment and provides a reference guide for deploying one of the more common centralized vCenter Single Sign-On configurations with an external network load balancer (NLB).

When to Centralize vCenter Single Sign-On Server

VMware highly recommends deploying all vCenter Server components into a single virtual machine—excluding the vCenter Server database. However, large enterprise customers running many vCenter Server instances within a single physical location can simplify vCenter Single Sign-On architecture and management by reducing the footprint and required resources and specifying a dedicated vCenter Single Sign-On environment for all resources in each physical location.

For vSphere 5.5, as a general guideline, VMware recommends centralization of vCenter Single Sign-On server when eight or more vCenter Server instances are present in a given location.

A Centralized vCenter Single Sign-On Server Environment

Figure 1 – A Centralized vCenter Single Sign-On Server Environment.

Centralized Single Sign-On High-Availability Options

The absence of vCenter Single Sign-On server greatly impacts the management, accessibility, and operations within a vSphere environment. The type of availability required is based on the user’s recovery time objective (RTO), and VMware solutions can offer various levels of protection.

VMware vSphere Data Protection

VMware vSphere Data Protection™ provides a disk-level backup-and-restore capability utilizing storage-based snapshots. With the release of vSphere Data Protection 5.5, VMware now provides the option of host-level restore. Users can back up vCenter Single Sign-On server virtual machines using vSphere Data Protection and can restore later as necessary to a specified vSphere host.

VMware vSphere High Availability

When deploying a centralized vCenter Single Sign-On server to a vSphere virtual machine environment, users can also deploy VMware vSphere High Availability (vSphere HA) to enable recovery of the vCenter Single Sign-On server virtual machines. vSphere HA monitors virtual machines via heartbeats from the VMware Tools™ package, and it can initiate a reboot of the virtual machine when the heartbeat no longer is being received or when the vSphere host has failed.

VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat

VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat™ provides a richer availability model for the monitoring and redundancy of vCenter Server and its components. It places a centralized vCenter Single Sign-On server into an active–passive architecture, monitors the application, and provides an up-to-date passive node for recovery during a vSphere host, virtual machine, or application failure.

Network Load Balancer

A VMware or third-party NLB can be configured to allow SSL pass-through communications to a number of local vCenter Single Sign-On server instances and provide a distributed and redundant vCenter Single Sign-On solution. Although VMware provides NLB capability in some of its optional products, such as VMware vCloud® Networking and Security™, there also are third-party solutions available in the marketplace. VMware does not provide support for third-party NLB solutions.

Deploying vCenter Single Sign-On Server with a Network Load Balancer

Preinstallation Checklist

The guidance provided within this document will reference the following details:

Centralized vCenter Single Sign-On Requirements

Table 1 – Centralized vCenter Single Sign-On Requirements

vCenter Single Sign-On Server with a Network Load Balancer

Figure 2 – Example of a vCenter Single Sign-On Server with a Network Load Balancer

Download

Download a full Deploying a Centralized VMware vCenter™ Single Sign-On™ Server with a Network Load Balancer – Technical Reference

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Jun 10

VMware vCenter Server™ 6.0 Deployment Guide

Introduction

The VMware vCenter Server™ 6.0 release introduces new, simplified deployment models. The components that make up a vCenter Server installation have been grouped into two types: embedded and external. Embedded refers to a deployment in which all components—this can but does not necessarily include the database—are installed on the same virtual machine. External refers to a deployment in which vCenter Server is installed on one virtual machine and the Platform Services Controller (PSC) is installed on another. The Platform Services Controller is new to vCenter Server 6.0 and comprises VMware vCenter™ Single Sign-On™, licensing, and the VMware Certificate Authority (VMCA).

Embedded installations are recommended for standalone environments in which there is only one vCenter Server system and replication to another Platform Services Controller is not required. If there is a need to replicate with other Platform Services Controllers or there is more than one vCenter Single Sign-On enabled solution, deploying the Platform Services Controller(s) on separate virtual machine(s)—via external deployment—from vCenter Server is required.

This paper defines the services installed as part of each deployment model, recommended deployment models (reference architectures), installation and upgrade instructions for each reference architecture, postdeployment steps, and certificate management in VMware vSphere 6.0.

VMware vCenter Server 6.0 Services

vCenter Server and Platform Services Controller Services

Figure 1 – vCenter Server and Platform Services Controller Services

Requirements

General
A few requirements are common to both installing vCenter Server on Microsoft Windows and deploying VMware vCenter Server Appliance™. Ensure that all of these prerequisites are in place before proceeding with a new installation or an upgrade.

  • DNS – Ensure that resolution is working for all system names via fully qualified domain name (FQDN), short name (host name), and IP address (reverse lookup).
  • Time – Ensure that time is synchronized across the environment.
  • Passwords – vCenter Single Sign-On passwords must contain only ASCII characters; non-ASCII and extended (or high) ASCII characters are not supported.

Windows Installation

Installing vCenter Server 6.0 on a Windows Server requires a Windows 2008 SP2 or higher 64-bit operating system (OS). Two options are presented: Use the local system account or use a Windows domain account. With a Windows domain account, ensure that it is a member of the local computer’s administrator group and that it has been delegated the “Log on as a service” right and the “Act as part of the operating system” right. This option is not available when installing an external Platform Services Controller.

Windows installations can use either a supported external database or a local PostgreSQL database that is installed with vCenter Server and is limited to 20 hosts and 200 virtual machines. Supported external databases include Microsoft SQL Server 2008 R2, SQL Server 2012, SQL Server 2014, Oracle Database 11g, and Oracle Database 12c. When upgrading to vCenter Server 6.0, if SQL Server Express was used in the previous installation, it will be replaced with PostgreSQL. External databases require a 64-bit DSN. DSN aliases are not supported.

When upgrading vCenter Server to vCenter Server 6.0, only versions 5.0 and later are supported. If the vCenter Server system being upgraded is not version 5.0 or later, such an upgrade is required first.

Table 2 outlines minimum hardware requirements per deployment environment type and size when using an external database. If VMware vSphere Update Manager™ is installed on the same server, add 125GB of disk space and 4GB of RAM.

Minimum Hardware Requirements – Windows Installation

Table 2. Minimum Hardware Requirements – Windows Installation

Download

Download a full VMware vCenter Server™ 6.0 Deployment Guide

Rating: 5/5


May 22

Common vCenter Server Tasks in the vSphere Web Client Part 2

https://kb.vmware.com/kb/2145397

This video tutorial demonstrates how to perform some common tasks in VMware vCenter Server using the vSphere Web Client.

The tasks covered in this video are:

– Creating a virtual machine
– Powering on a virtual machine
– vMotioning a virtual machine
– Editing or changing the virtual machine settings
– Storage vMotioning a virtual machine

This video tutorial is aimed at VMware users who are new to the vSphere Web Client.

Rating: 5/5


May 22

Common vCenter Server Tasks in the vSphere Web Client Part 1

https://kb.vmware.com/kb/2145397

This video demonstrates how to perform the following common VMware vCenter Server tasks using the vSphere Web Client.

– Creating a Datacenter
– Creating a Cluster
– Adding an ESXi host
– Licensing an ESXi host

This vmware video tutorial is aimed at vSphere users who are new to the vSphere Web Client.

Rating: 5/5


Nov 03

Installing vCenter Server 6.0 best practices (KB2107948)

Purpose

This article provides information about installing VMware vCenter Server 6.0 Best practices.

Note: This article assumes that you have read the vSphere 6.0 Installation and Setup documentation.
The documentation contains definitive information. If there is a discrepancy between the documentation and this article, assume that the documentation is correct. Ensure that you have read the known issues in the VMware vSphere 6.0 Release Notes.

Resolution

Deployment models and Platform Services Controllers

With vSphere 6.0, we have introduced deployment models and Platform Services Controllers. There are two deployment models:

    ■ Embedded Deployment Model:
    – vCenter Server with an embedded Platform Services Controller
    ■ External Deployment Model:
    – External Platform Services Controller.
    vCenter Server with external Platform Services controller.

For more information about when to use the external or embedded deployment models, see vCenter Server Deployment Models.

Warning: Although the installation can complete successfully, some resulting topologies may not be recommended by VMware. For a list of recommended topologies and mitigation steps, see List of recommended topologies for vSphere 6.0.x (2108548).

Warning: If you decide on an external model, the installation must be done sequentially starting with the platform services controllers, not concurrently.

If you have used vSphere 5.x you may be familiar with some services that were previously deployed independently of vCenter Server. For more information about how the vSphere 5.x services map to the new vSphere 6.0 servers, see Migration of Distributed vCenter Server for Windows Services During Upgrade to vCenter Server 6.0 in our documentation.

For further related installation information,see the vCenter Server 6.0 documentation subtopics:

vCenter Server Components and Services
vCenter Server Deployment Models
Overview of the vSphere Installation and Setup Process
vSphere Security Certificates Overview
Enhanced Linked Mode Overview

vCenter Server for Windows Requirements

To install vCenter Server on a Windows virtual machine or physical server, your system must meet specific hardware and software requirements. For more information, see also following related Prerequisites.

vCenter Server for Windows Hardware Requirements
vCenter Server for Windows Storage Requirements
Required free space for system logging
vCenter Server for Windows Software Requirements
Supported host operating systems for VMware vCenter Server installation (including vCenter Update Manager and vRealize Orchestrator) (2091273)
Verify that the FQDN is resolvable
Synchronizing Clocks on the vSphere network
vCenter Server for Windows Database Requirements
VMware Product Interoperability Matrix

vCenter Server Appliance Requirements

The appliance upgrade process has changed significantly from the previous release. There is now an ISO file containing the appliance that can be downloaded. The ISO contains an installer that will deploy the appliance to a host running ESXi 5.1.x or later. The tool runs in a browser on a Microsoft Windows Platform. The tool requires the client integration plugin to function and therefore must meet it’s requirements. For more information about installing the Client Integration Plug-in Software on your windows platform, see Install Client Integration Plug-in. For information about the appliance upgrade tool, see Upgrade the vCenter Server Appliance.

Prior to installing vSphere 6.0, please ensure you have these requirements:

vCenter Server Appliance Hardware Requirements
vCenter Server Appliance Storage Requirements
Verify that the FQDN is resolvable
Synchronizing Clocks on the vSphere network
vCenter Server Appliance Software Requirements
vCenter Server Appliance Database Requirements
Software Included in the vCenter Server Appliance

vSphere Web Client Software Requirements

Make sure that your browser supports the vSphere Web Client.
The vSphere Web Client 6.0 requires Adobe Flash Player 16 or later. The latest Adobe Flash Player version for Linux systems is 11.2. Therefore, the vSphere Web Client cannot run on Linux platforms.
VMware has tested and supports these guest operating systems and browser versions for the vSphere Web Client. For best performance, use Google Chrome.

vSphere Web Client Software Requirements

If you plan to install the Client Integration Plug-in separately from the vSphere Web Client so that you can connect to an ESXi host and deploy or upgrade the vCenter Server Appliance, make sure that your browser supports the Client Integration Plug-in.
To use the Client Integration Plug-in, verify that you have one of the supported Web browsers.

vSphere Client Requirements

You can install the vSphere Client to manage single ESXi host. The Windows system on which you install the vSphere Client must meet specific hardware and software requirements.

vSphere Client Hardware Requirements
vSphere Client Software Requirements
Supported host operating systems for vSphere Client (Windows) installation (2100436)
TCP and UDP Ports for the vSphere Client

Additional Information

Walkthroughs
If you would like to see step-by-step upgrade instructions with annotations, see go to our Product Walkthroughs.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q: Are Oracle databases supported as an external database for vCenter Server Appliance?
A: Oracle 11g and 12c are supported as external databases in vCenter Server Appliance 6.0

Q: Will Oracle databases continue to be supported beyond vSphere 6.0 for vCenter Server Appliance?
A: Oracle 11g and 12c as an external database for vCenter Server Appliance is deprecated in the 6.0 release. VMware will provide general support as per lifecycle support policy.

Q: What is the plan to support Microsoft SQL databases with vCenter Server Appliance 6.0?
A: There is no plan to support Mircosoft SQL database as an external database. Embedded vPostgres database supports scale limits of 1,000 hosts and 10,000 virtual machines.

Q: Can I deploy vCenter Server Appliance using OVFTOOL?
A: Starting with vSphere 6.0, the user interface based installer is the only supported method to install and upgrade vCenter Server Appliance.

Q: Why can’t I deploy vCenter appliance on vCenter Server cluster?
A: This feature is planned for a future release.

Q: What is considered too large for an embedded deployment model?
A: An embedded deployment model can only include a single instance of vCenter Server. If your requirements exceed the limits of a single instance of vCenter Server, you should consider using an external model.

Q: What is considered too small for an external deployment model?
A: If you only require a single instance of vCenter Server and you do not expect the environment to grow, you should consider an embedded model.

Rating: 5/5


Jul 08

vCenter Server 6 Deployment Topologies and High Availability

Architectural changes to vSphere 6

Posted on March 9, 2015 by Mohan Potheri

vCenter Server 6 has some fundamental architectural changes compared to vCenter Server Server 5.5. The multitude of components that existed in vCenter Server 5.x has been consolidated in vCenter Server 6 to have only two components vCenter Management Server and Platform Services Controller, formerly vCenter Server Single Sign-On.

The Platform Services Controller (PSC) provides a set of common infrastructure services encompassing
  • Single Sign-On (SSO)
  • Licensing
  • Certificate Authority

The vCenter Management Server consolidates all the other components such as Inventory Service & Web Client services along with its traditional management components. The vCenter Server components can be typically deployed in with either embedded or external PSC. Care should be taken to understand the critical differences between the two deployment models. Once deployed one cannot move from one mode to another in this version.

Deployment Models

vCenter Server with Embedded PSC:
The embedded PSC is meant for standalone sites where vCenter Server will be the only SSO integrated solution. In this case a replication to another PSC is not necessary.
  • Sufficient for most environments. Easiest to deploy and maintain
  • Aimed at minimizing fault domains. Use in conjunction with only one of VMware Product or Solution.
  • Multiple standalone instances supported
  • Replication between embedded instances not supported
  • Supports Windows & Appliance
Embedded mode vCenter Server 6

Figure 1: Embedded mode vCenter Server 6

vCenter Server with External PSC

In this configuration the PSC is external to the vCenter Server. This configuration allows multiple vCenter Servers to link to a PSC.
  • Recommend this if deploying/growing to multiple vCenter Server instances that need to be linked
  • Reduces footprint by sharing Platform Services Controller across several vCenter Servers
  • Deploy more than one PSC to provide resilience within the environment
  • Supports Windows & Appliance
vCenter Server 6 with External PSC

Figure 2: vCenter Server 6 with External PSC

Options available for vCenter Server failure protection

Backup (VDP / Third Party VADP)

vCenter Server deployed in embedded mode can be backed up with VDP or third party backup software that leverage VADP. Currently there is no simple mechanism available to backup the PSC when is external to the vCenter Server. Multiple instances of PSC should be leveraged to protect against an individual external PSC failure.

VMware HA

Majority of the customers have virtualized their vCenter server and leverage VMware HA to protect against Hardware failure. VMware HA can also protect against guest OS failure through the use of heartbeat and watchdog services.

Third Party Solutions that layer on top of VMware HA

Third party solutions like Symantec ApplicationHA layer on top of VMware HA and can also monitor and restart vCenter services in the event of any failure. Using a solution like Symantec ApplicationHA, one can monitor all of the components of vCenter server. In the event it is unable to resolve issues by restarting services, it interacts VMware HA to reset the virtual machine. Symantec ApplicationHA has a specific agent for vCenter agent that helps monitor and protect all aspects of vCenter.

VMware SMP-FT

With the release of vSphere 6, SMP Fault tolerance is available for up to 4 vCPU. This can also protect against hardware failure, but is applicable only to vCenter Server instances that can fit within the 4 vCPU virtual machine size. Any application failure is not protected by SMP-FT.

Database Clustering

For vCenter servers backed by Microsoft SQL databases, SQL clustering can be leveraged to provide reduced downtime for unplanned events and for OS patching.

Platform Service Controller

Multiple External PSC instances can be used for a single site to service one or more vCenter servers. A load balancer is required to frontend the PSC instances. The PSC instances replicate state information between each other.

vCenter Server High Availability

With vCenter Server 5.5 Update 3 and later, Windows Server Failover Cluster is supported as an option for providing vCenter Server availability. Two instances of vCenter Server are in a MSCS cluster, but only one instance is active at a time. VMware only supports 2 node clusters.

Use cases for this solution:
  • This solution helps reduce downtime for maintenance operations, such as patching or upgrades, on one node in the cluster without taking down the vCenter Server database.
  • Another potential benefit of this approach is that MSCS uses a type of “shared-nothing” cluster architecture. The cluster does not involve concurrent disk accesses from multiple nodes. In other words, the cluster does not require a distributed lock manager. MSCS clusters typically include only two nodes and they use a shared SCSI connection between the nodes. Only one server needs the disks at any given time, so no concurrent data access occurs. This sharing minimizes the impact if a node fails.
  • Unlike the vSphere HA cluster option, the MSCS option works only for Windows virtual machines and does not support the vCenter Server Appliance.
  • Before you can set up MSCS for vCenter Server availability, you must create a virtual machine with one of the following guest operating systems:
    • Windows 2008 SP2
    • Windows 2012 R2 Datacenter

Additionally, you must add two RDM disks to this VM. These disks must be mounted and when they are added, you must create a separate SCSI controller with the bus sharing option set to physical. The RDM disks must also be independent and persistent.

In this configuration all vCenter Server services can be protected individually. The backend Microsoft SQL database can also be protected separately with SQL Clustering.

Clustering based high availability for Windows based vCenter Server

Figure 3: Clustering based high availability for Windows based vCenter Server

Deployment Modes for vCenter Server

Local vCenter Server & PSX High Availability:
  • This model protects the platform service controller service by having multiple instances of PSC locally behind a load balancer. Failure of a PSC does not impact the usage of the infrastructure. The PSCs should also be separated from each other physically using anti-affinity rules. The PSCs replicate state information vCenter Server nodes are individually clustered with WSFC for HA. The vCenter Servers interact with the PSCs through a load balancer.
Local vCenter and PSC high availability

Figure 4: Local vCenter and PSC high availability

Multiple Site vCenter Server and PSC basic Architecture:

In this configuration each site is independent with PSC replication between sites. The vCenter Server is aware of the site topologies and use the local PSC under normal circumstances. Customers are able to seamlessly move the vCenter Servers between PSCs when necessary. This topology allows for Enhanced Linked Mode (ELM) which is facilitated by the PSC. Enhanced Linked Mode provides for a single point of management for all vCenter Servers in the same vSphere domain. In vSphere 6 the Windows-based and Virtual Appliance-based vCenter Servers have the same operational maximums and can belong to the same linked mode configuration. The configuration replicates all license, global permissions, tags and roles across all sites.

Multi-site vCenter Server and PSC basic architecture

Figure 5: Multi-site vCenter Server and PSC basic architecture

Multiple Site vCenter Server & PSC with High Availability Architecture:

Combining the high availability configuration in a local site with the multi site configuration. Each site is populated with at least two PSCs for high availability. vCenter Server nodes are individually clustered with WSFC for HA.

Multi-site vCenter Server and PSC high availability architecture

Figure 6: Multi-site vCenter Server and PSC high availability architecture

Conclusion

vCenter Server 6 has a new deployment architecture. In this blog we have discussed the deployment modes for vCenter Server based on different requirements. The modes of deployment can go from a minimal local deployment to a multi site high availability deployment. There are many high availability options available for vCenter Server and one can mix and match these based on customer requirements.

Rating: 5/5


Jun 17

VMware vCenter Server Appliance 6.0 Installation with Embedded Platform Services Controller

VMware vCenter Server Appliance 6.0 Installation with Embedded Platform Services Controller.

Rating: 5/5


Feb 27

VMware vCenter6 installation (Windows)

http://www.vladan.fr/vsphere-6-features-vcenter-server-details VMware vSphere 6 introduces vCenter Server 6 which, again, in two different platforms – Window…

Rating: 5/5